Main article: Types of tobacco. This article needs additional citations for verification. Main article: Cultivation of tobacco. Main article: Curing of tobacco. Main article: Child labor. Further information: Tobacco products. Main article: Prevalence of tobacco consumption. Main article: Health effects of tobacco. See also: List of additives in cigarettes. This section needs expansion with: discussion of the impact on the poor, taxation, and so forth. You can help by adding to it. January Main article: Tobacco advertising. Transform Tobacco. Archived from the original on 20 December Retrieved 4 December All but eleven states had youth tobacco possession laws in place.
There are still six states which prohibit youth from possessing tobacco, but allow for an exemption where parents or guardians give permission for that possession: Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Ohio, and Texas. Little, Brown and Company Retrieved 26 November World Health Organization.
Tobacco is the single most preventable cause of death in the world today. The American Anthropologist. A2 2 : — Retrieved Journal of Economic Entomology. University Press of Kentucky. Retrieved 2 February Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids.
Bibcode : PNAS Abington: Helicon, Credo Reference. Tobacco and its environmental impact: an overview. Leaf Only. Retrieved 20 April Archived from the original on October 17, Retrieved April 20, Higher World Tobacco use expected by growth rates slowing down. In Prabhat Jha; Frank J. Chaloupka eds. Tobacco Control in Developing Countries. New York: Oxford University Press. Tobacco Control. Retrieved 28 February Tobacco and Poverty: Observations from India and Bangladesh. Canada, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Tobacco farming: sustainable alternatives?
Volume 2 PDF. Archived from the original PDF on The International Consortium of Investigative Journalists. Retrieved November 26, Smoke Ring: The Politics of Tobacco. London: Panos Briefing Paper. Pesticides in the Diets of Infants and Children.
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National Academy Press. Indian Journal of Biotechnology. Archived from the original on Retrieved 17 July GMO Compass. Part II. Overview of ecological risk assessment". Plant J. The Lancet. Gilman and Zhou Xun, "Introduction" in Smoke ; p. Geneva: World Health Organization. Smoking and Tobacco Use. USA Today. Retrieved 5 July Plantation agriculture in the Southeastern United States. Sharecropping Convict leasing.
Psychoactive substance-related disorder F10—F19 , —; — Alcoholic hepatitis Alcoholic liver disease Auto-brewery syndrome. Alcohol-related dementia Alcoholic hallucinosis Hangover. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy Alcohol flush reaction. Alcoholism alcohol use disorder Binge drinking. SID Acute intoxication from hallucinogens bad trip Hallucinogen persisting perception disorder.
Inhalant abuse : Toluene toxicity.
Recreational drug use. Calea zacatechichi Silene capensis. Wheat culture involved less hoe and more plow work, which lessened Chesapeake farmers' dependence on slave labor.
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The Tidewater's connections to Atlantic trade also promoted grain cultivation after a series of European conflicts increased demand for bread, several poor weather years hampered other American and foreign grain-growing regions, and the rapid growth of the northeastern colonies fueled grain prices. Also contributing to this shift toward grain cultivation, eastern planters ranging from large masters, such as George Washington, to smaller landowners, saw in wheat the potential to diversify their agricultural practices.
This Tidewater shift to wheat cultivation before the American Revolution was dramatic, but it did not entirely displace tobacco cultivation in the region. A few figures reveal the continued importance of the traditional crop on Chesapeake farms. According to Philip Morgan, in the value of the Tidewater's exported tobacco was fourteen times greater than the value of the region's grain. With the growth of wheat culture, the gap shrank over the ensuing decades, but in , Tidewater tobacco exports were still worth three times as much as grain. Allan Kulikoff calculates that as of , two out of three residents of coastal Virginia and Maryland still raised tobacco on a regular basis.
Tobacco remained a crop with widespread appeal in the eastern portion of the colony, but the gradual decline in Tidewater leaf production after the Revolution accelerated Piedmont tobacco cultivation, where fresh land promised larger crops and good profits at least initially. Tobacco's shift from the Tidewater to the Piedmont was a lengthy transition, but the latter region was the center of American tobacco production by the early decades of the nineteenth century.
Piedmont tobacco growers were thus subject to the forces of national and transatlantic trade and to changes in distant landscapes, but they also had to deal with the material realities of raising tobacco in a new environment.
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And the Southside environment was quite different from the Tidewater or the Great Valley from which most regional settlers came. Caswell, Halifax, and Pittsylvania lie along the Piedmont's western edge, a landscape of rolling hills, deep creek and river courses, and the occasional low mountain. Although the region receives moderate precipitation—between forty and fifty inches per year—it is a particularly well-drained landscape thanks to its numerous streams and rivers.
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As Byrd learned, these waterways dominate regional topography: the Staunton River drains the northern portion of Pittsylvania and Halifax, and the Dan drains the southern stretches of both counties and all of Caswell, before the two rivers combine to form the Roanoke in eastern Halifax. Water figures prominently even in the corners of the region farthest from the major rivers, as hardly a square mile of the three counties lacks a regular stream of some sort. With the exception of moderately rocky ridges containing Appalachian soil strata, such as Turkeycock, Smith, and White Oak mountains, these watercourses cut through characteristic Piedmont soils.
To draw on the language and understandings of modern soil scientists, most regional soils are ultisols, weathered from parent material from the eastern slopes of the Appalachian range. These soils leave much to be desired from an agricultural perspective. Ultisols tend to be low in nutrients and minerals essential to most plant growth, including nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and calcium, and they are consistently acidic, posing barriers for species reliant on neutral or basic environments such as many nitrogen-fixing legumes that are important components of convertible husbandry.
These nutrient-poor, acidic conditions were the result of a number of factors: ultisols are quite old and weathered, even from a geological perspective; the Piedmont experiences consistent heat, humidity, and heavy rainfall, which leach nutrients and minerals from upper soil horizons at a rapid rate; and the region missed out on a potential source of soil enrichment in the form of the most recent glaciation, which made it no farther south than Pennsylvania.
Regional soils were also very slow to incorporate organic materials, including leaves and pine needles, into their upper horizons. Typical Piedmont soils thus, as one environmental historian observes, "bear a strong resemblance to tropical soils, which tend to be deeply weathered and prone to exhaustion and erosion if not handled with care.
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Of course the land along the Virginia and North Carolina border at the foot of the mountains contained its own distinctive mosaic of these Piedmont soils. At a most basic level the region is divided between lowlands and more extensive uplands. By Evan P. Gainesville and other cities: University Press of Florida, Southern historians, more than most of their peers, understand that the glamorous and ignoble cigarette, world-traveling in its fame and destruction, traces its lineage in part to the farms of the Piedmont South.
There, bright leaf tobacco was developed after and became entwined with the changing environmental, labor, and political history of the region. These two new books on bright leaf tobacco extend and deepen our knowledge of the "golden weed. Swanson's A Golden Weed: Tobacco and Environment in the Piedmont South is an environmental history of the nineteenth century that explains how and why bright leaf farming led to environmental degradation.
Swanson rigorously explains ecological factors as inextricably entangled with the profoundly racialized political economy of the region, from slavery to segregation. Bennett focuses on the rise and fall of the family system of labor and the role of the federal government in stabilizing the market for bright leaf during the Great Depression. Bennett takes his story from the end of the Civil War to the close of the Federal Tobacco Program in and the subsequent return to a system of plantation production.
Related A Golden Weed: Tobacco and Environment in the Piedmont South
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