The story of the nutritional management of hypertension through modification of dietary patterns initiated from the DASH [ 45 ] and DASH-sodium trials [ 46 ]. The impressiveness of a dietary regimen similar to that adopted in the DASH diet has been emphasized in recent commanding reports [ 8 , 47 ] DASH diet is emphasizes on fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy foods. Compared to the typical western diet, Dash diet also includes more whole grains, poultry, fish, and nuts, and lower amounts of fats, red meat, sweets, and sugar-containing beverages.
DASH diet is poorer in total and saturated fat and cholesterol and richer in potassium, magnesium, calcium, and fiber in comparison to the Western diet. Actually, the BP lowering effect of complex dietary patterns is the result of the synergism between the different components of certain foods or food combinations rather than of the particular effect of a nutrient alone. The goal of the DASH diet was really to evaluate the effects on BP of a change in dietary patterns, rather than the effects of a change in a particular nutrient.
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Lowering systolic blood pressure by an average of about 6 mm Hg and diastolic pressure by about 3 mmHg was observed by the DASH diet. The effect of the diet that was only higher than the typical American diet in fruits and vegetables on BP was about 3 mmHg in systolic and 2 mmHg reduction in diastolic pressure.
The DASH trial was even more effective for participants with blood pressure These surprising results presented significantly reduction in blood by the DASH diet and motivated the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure to recommend the DASH diet to goal in blood pressure control [ 49 ]. What we earned from the DASH-Sodium study showed that reducing sodium intake could lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly in both the control and DASH diet groups [ 44 , 50 ]. Key findings in that study includes :. The combined effect of the DASH diet and lowering sodium intake to 1, mg was a reduction of 8.
These findings have comprehensive implications. First, they supply a scientific basis for a dietary sodium aim lower than most recently recommended. Second, they emphasize on the benefit of reducing sodium intake even in non-hypertensive people. The DASH combination diet is consistent with other dietary recommendations. Potassium is one nutrient that contributed to the effect of the fruits-and-vegetables and a combination diet. In a recent Meta-analysis shows that, an increase of 60 mmol of potassium in hypertensive individuals was collaborated with a 4. Diets enriched in fruits and vegetables associated with increased antioxidant activity [ 54 ].
Prior studies have shown endothelium-dependent vasodilatation can improve by antioxidants [ 55 ]. Additionally, these diets are also increased in magnesium content.
In population studies, inversely related was found to dietary intake of magnesium and BP among men, [ 56 ] women, [ 57 ] and children, [ 58 ] and there was an inverse relationship between magnesium intake and risk of stroke. However, direct supplementation of magnesium had no significant effect on BP in women with low intake. High BP is largely associated with chronic condition impressed both developed and developing countries, with increasing risk collaborated with the ageing the population.
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Multiple dietary factors affect BP homeostasis and may have desirable effects on high BP prevention and treatment. Beneficial effect of other complex dietary patterns, like the vegetarian diets and the traditional Mediterranean diet was shown in many evidences. More research is needed to substantiate the findings obtained by observational studies or short-term intervention trials with larger randomized intervention studies.
In conclusion, the role of nutrition in the prevention of high BP and its comorbiditie with high impact on public health and socioeconomic costs must not be neglected and need stronger researches than that supported by present scientific evidence. The world health report reducing risks, promoting healthy life. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease.
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Lifestyle modification and hypertension prevention | Ghezelbash | ARYA Atherosclerosis
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